As we prepare to celebrate Passover this Friday night (Apr 6th) and Easter this Sunday morning (Apr 8th), may we remember their shared theme of redemption. Passover commemorates Israel’s miraculous Exodus from Egyptian slavery, and Easter offers salvation to a world imprisoned by sin. Jesus’ resurrection shines as a light to all nations, a beacon of hope for both Jew and Gentile.
Exodus Muses: Jesus as a Type of Moses
Calming Storms & Drowning Legions
By Jon “Yoni” Gerrish
Ancient Jewish sages believed that the future Messiah of Israel should display certain Moses-like characteristics—powerful spiritual leadership and astute Torah teaching. It is no secret that Moses and Jesus have much in common, sharing similar life experiences. In particular, both led a mission of deliverance from bondage. Therefore, it should not surprise us to find parallels of language and themes from the Exodus within the Gospels. For example, in Luke 11:20, Jesus says that if he drives out demons by the finger of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon the people. This unique phrase, “finger of God” is a direct reference to Ex 8:19 and the plague of the lice/gnats, where the Egyptian magicians proclaim that “this is the finger of God.”
The Gospel writers, with the possible exception of Luke, were biblically oriented Jews writing to other Jews and “God-fearing” Gentiles. When describing the life and teachings of Jesus, these writers would naturally want to communicate through shared biblical motifs understood in their Jewish framework. It is logical to suggest that their target audiences would be holding to certain expectations about their long-awaited Messiah.
Torah Teaching in the Synagogues
Without understanding the life and work of Moses, the messianic reports about Jesus could potentially fall on deaf ears. Of the three Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke), Mark is perhaps the heaviest-laden with thematic parallels and inter-textual connections to the Exodus. To fashion a message with such links would have fit well into the more respected styles of teaching and storytelling known in the ancient Jewish world, specifically midrash. Within the ancient Jewish teaching there was often a sub-world of midrash, a sophisticated system of biblical interpretation that connected different parts of Scripture by word plays or subtle allusion. It has been widely taught in Christian circles that Mark’s work was customized to fit the interests of a Gentile Roman audience. However, with a careful investigation of his style, it seems doubtful that Mark cast his pearls of midrashic teachings on those with no synagogue background or biblical literacy.
Keeping this in mind, several parallels to the Exodus come to light in Mark’s depiction of Jesus. Jesus under pressure from the crowds (Mk 3:9-10), calming the storm (Mk 4:35), and delivering the demoniac from a host of demons (Mk 5:1-30) has allusions to the Israelites flight from Egypt (Ex 12:34), Moses calming the children of Israel at the Reed Sea (Ex 14:13-14), and the subsequent destruction of Pharaoh’s army (Ex 14:27-28).
Under Pressure on the Shore
Both Mark and Luke relate that crowds pressed upon Jesus for healing and teaching while he was on the shores of the Sea of Galilee (Mk. 3:9, 10; Lk. 5:1). At one point Jesus instructs his disciples to prepare a small boat so the crowds would not “press hard” upon him (Mk 3:9). Moments later, Mark tells us that Jesus is so rushed, he does not have time to eat a meal of bread (Mk 3:20). This seemingly insignificant detail about being “pressed” strikes a biblical chord and may be a clue to a larger story build-up connected to the Exodus account. With this phrase, “pressed hard”, Mark’s audience would be reminded that the children of Israel were under intense pressure and had little time to eat a meal with proper bread before their escape from Egypt (Ex 12:34).
In Exodus 14 we find Moses on the shore of the Reed Sea as the Israelite crowds press upon him for answers. The jubilation over their recent deliverance from slavery in Egypt has suddenly turned into the highest level of anxiety. As darkness falls, the Israelites are acutely aware that Pharaoh and his army are closing in behind them, while in front of them is the impassable Reed Sea. The Israelites cry out to Moses saying “did you bring us here to die in the wilderness?” (Ex 14:11).
Calming Words—“Peace, Be Still!”
Paralleling Mark 4:35-41, with darkness looming on the horizon Jesus and his disciples set sail. Later that night, they encounter a furious storm on the Sea of Galilee. At this critical moment Jesus is found sleeping on a cushion and his disciples are in a state of terror as the waves begin to break over their boats. They awaken Jesus and cry out, “Teacher, don’t you care if we perish?” (Mk 4:36). There is harmony here in all the Synoptic narratives, but the next detail sets Mark apart from the others when he tells us specifically what Jesus said to the wind and waves, “Peace! Be still!” (Mk 4:39).
Returning to Exodus 14, Moses is pressed for answers as the tension mounts and the future of the children of Israel hangs in the balance. With the crowds pressing him, he exclaims, “Do not be afraid. Stand firm and you will see the deliverance the Lord will bring you today. The Egyptians you see today you will never see again. The Lord will fight for you; you need only to be still” (Ex 14:13-14).
With both Jesus calming the storm and Moses calming the Israelites, we have two nearly identical moments involving imminent doom that is tranquilized by the words “Quiet, be still” or “Peace be still.” For reasons we may never know Matthew, Luke and John chose to leave out this fascinating link.
Pharoah’s Legions and Pigs Drown
In Mark 5, Jesus and his disciples finally reach the other side of the Sea of Galilee in the early morning (conjectured time of day). They arrive in the Gerasene region of the Decapolis (possibly near modern day Kursi). There Jesus is confronted by a man who has been tortured for years by an unclean spirit. There is a dialogue between Jesus where the demons identify themselves by the military term “legion” and beg not to be sent out of the country (Mk 5:1-10). Jesus promptly exorcises these spirits out of the man and they enter a herd of pigs located on a nearby hillside, whereby the pigs rush into the sea and drown (5:13).
In Greek religious culture which was pervasive on the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee, pigs were often selected for sacrificial purposes. After Jesus casts the demons into the herd of swine that soon after drown, witnesses inform the local residents. Instead of expressing joy or gratitude for the miracle that had set the demoniac free, the residents request that Jesus “leave their region” (apelthein apo ton orion Mk 5:17). This angry reaction of the locals may provide a crucial hint at the religious offense of the pig drowning. Their Greek religious infrastructure had just taken a blow. After the Egyptians suffer from ten devastating plagues or divine strikes, we can hear a similar urgency in their words as they demand the Israelites be sent out of their region (ekbalein outous ek tais gais, Septuagint Ex. 12:33).
At the Reed Sea, Pharoah’s army is thrown into utter confusion (Ex. 14:24), and like the possessed pigs charging into the Sea of Galilee, Pharoah’s soldiers give chase to Israel. Yet, both hordes of legions meet a watery grave. Several commentators have suggested that Mark’s narrative about the drowning pigs was originally intended to be a satire about the Roman occupation of the Jews. The wild boar was the symbol of the Roman 10th Legion, and the drowning of swine would have been welcome news to a Jewish audience. Likewise, after years of slavery in Egypt, the Israelites would have celebrated after the drowning of their oppressors.
The Gospel of Mark skillfully draws our eyes and ears back to one of the greatest rescue accounts of all time from one of the most popular Torah books, Exodus. Just as Moses represents God’s redemption from the bondage of Egyptian slavery, so too, Jesus is the redeemer of those trapped in spiritual bondage or suffering from demonic oppression. Deliverance is a driving force in Jesus’ life and ministry. Jesus not only sets them free, restoring them to their right mind, but the enemy takes a “hit” from the “hand of God” (Deut. 28:59).
Mark’s linguistic links and thematic hints to the Exodus resonate with and solidify one of the central messianic expectations—that he should be like Moses. If Mark’s intended audience were indeed Roman, I would suggest that they were most likely Jewish Romans or ‘God-fearing’ Gentiles who attended synagogues and would have been familiar with the rich Exodus themes. Mark’s portrayal of Jesus as a liberator and redeemer like Moses would have convincingly communicated to these synagogue members Jesus’ messianic purpose and message.
 David Flusser, Judaism and the Origins of the Christianity (Magnes Press, Jerusalem 1988) p. 550 – the expression could also be understood as an eschatological sign.
 Known as sea or lake Kinneret (כנרת ים) in biblical Hebrew (Num 34:11 and Jos. 13:27)
 Luke never uses the term ‘sea’ instead he consistently calls it a ‘lake’ (lymnain) a description more authentic to the size and reality of the Kinneret which is indeed a fresh water source. Mark on the other hand, never uses any term but ‘sea’ (thalassa) when speaking about the Kinneret. Matthew uses both terms but ‘sea’ is less frequent. By definition a sea is typically a larger body of salt water.
 תחרישון Taharishun = hold your peace, be quiet or be still
Charity Report: Your Gifts Helped these Individuals, Families, and Ministries during February and March 2012
Bella has four kids. Her husband recently left her and the kids. He took everything except the beds and clothes. With the help of neighbors and family, Bella was able to find a refrigerator, oven, and heater. Recently, the electricity was disconnected due to a debt of more than $200 from before her husband left. The husband refuses to help with the bill.
Alice was raised in a Bethlehem orphanage. She is now six months pregnant and does not have the means to buy basic necessities for the baby. Even though she does have insurance it will not cover the full hospital bill.
JCF contributed toward ten needy Israeli families to buy meat for the upcoming Passover holiday.
Belinda’s oldest daughter had to undergo three surgeries several years ago. Recently her husband had a heart attack resulting in open-heart surgery and now needs much medication. Belinda just found that she has a growth on her kidney and needs to perform some medical tests, which JCF is helping cover.
Update from Beit El, Messianic Ethiopian Congregation
Shalom! Dear Family,
Here are my prayer burdens for what is going on around us in the Ethiopian community. Please pray for:
- The Lord to pour out the Holy Spirit among the believers.
- Ultra orthodox Jews who are protesting outside our church every Sabbath, disturbing us and our children. Recently they tried to break my car door as me, my wife, and our three children were inside.
- The new generation that is far away from the way of Lord.
- Our children to find faith in the Lord.
- The Ethiopian Jewish community which suffers from racism in Israel.
- Ethiopian families. In the past years, a number of wives have been killed by their husbands.
- Ethiopian Israeli soldiers.
- New Ethiopian immigrants who are suffering in many ways, spiritually, physically, and mentally.
Thank you for your faithfully prayer and supports.
Update from House of Light, an Israeli-Arab Ministry
Ministering to the Sudanese Refugees is one of the most humbling experiences I have encountered in my life. After traveling several hours through the Negev Desert, the House of Light’s ministry team reached the prison facility where hundreds of Sudanese Refugees are held. Upon arriving, our team of twelve was divided into four smaller groups which went to eight different camps of refugees. I was paired with an Arab minister and slowly we marched to the unknown in ‘Camp 4’, which housed over 300 Arabic & Tigrinya speaking refugees.
We set up a keyboard and I played several Arabic hymns. As these songs were unfamiliar to the group, the Arab minister explained the significance of the songs’ words. Many of the young men were eager to join in singing, and there was evidence that even a simple and unfamiliar song brought hope to their hearts. After a short time of worship, my partner shared a brief message about how powerful the love of our Heavenly Father is. It’s so vast, that God sent His beloved Son to the cross to die for us. Despite language barriers, it was evident that even these men were blessed to have us come and share in fellowship with them.
The percentage of people who listened to the minister’s message was surprisingly low. However, as soon as we began distributing Bibles, men seemed to appear out nowhere. We could not open the protective book-casing fast enough to give God’s word to outstretched hands. Tigrinya, English, Amharic, French and Arabic Bibles disappeared faster than I could have imagined. It is my understanding that many of these men were so eager to take the Bible simply because it is in their own language, and they do not own anything else. Regardless of their motivation, we praise God for their hunger to have His Word, and we pray and trust that He will speak to them through it. All of the refugees were also given a gift bag containing a variety of snack foods.
In the camp which secures the women and children, God’s spirit was moving to touch the lives of the refugees. As we played recorded worship songs in Tigrinya, the women, young ladies, and children joined us in dancing. Even those who remained sitting were smiling and clapping. I was blessed to see, even if was just for a short time, that these people found a reason to have joy. We praise God for the young lady who translated for us from Arabic to Tigrinya. She spoke with such enthusiasm; with all her heart, she wanted everyone to understand the hope of God’s love and grace in Jesus. The majority of refugees come from a Muslim background, but some professed to be Christians. Two women specifically expressed their gratitude for the blessing and encouragement they received from our presence there.
After their time in this prison facility, the refugees will be released to find life and jobs in the big city of Tel Aviv. They find themselves in a foreign land without food, water, housing, and no instruction as to how they should live. Their only possession is the clothes on their backs. It is clear that these men, women, and children are in great need: spiritually, physically, and emotionally. The truth is, that like any other ministry, we cannot accurately measure the result of our efforts. The impact is greatest in the spiritual world rather than the physical. We can only pray and trust that the words of truth that were sown into their lives were not in vain. God holds these people in His hands, and although we do not even know the extent of their needs, He does. May the grace of His loving presence surround and protect these precious people.
News: Sela Shimon Alley
Gary, Sharon, and Sa’ar Alley welcomed into the world their newest family member, Sela Shimon. He was born on March 27th, in Bethlehem at the Holy Family Hospital on his father’s, Gary’s, 39th birthday and Gary’s grandmother’s 87th birthday. “Sela” is a Hebrew word for “rock or bedrock (Ps 18:2).”
Jesus replied, “Blessed are you, Shimon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by flesh and blood, but by my Father in heaven. And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.”
Prayer Requests and Praise Reports
Dalia Gerrish, Yoni Gerrish’s wife, as she faces seven more chemotherapy treatments and radiation
The Ethiopian Jewish community (see Pastor Tal’s requests above
The Sudanese Refugees in Israel (see House of Light’s update
The Jewish people during Passover season (Apr 6-14)